THEBES Project

THEBES project (2015-2018) dealt with investigating and modelling of bentonite to be used as a barrier in the nuclear waste storage. At Aalto we developed thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical framework and implemented it into a Finite Element code. That allows for modelling of complex coupled behaviour of unsaturated bentonite. We also did significant amount of investigation related to water retention behaviour of bentonite partially saturated with saline solutions. Some publications are  available and listed below. There are some more which are coming.

Please click for the THEBES Project page (to be retired)

The content of the pages is now partially migrated here:


THEBES Seminars Slides and Presentations


Selected publications:

Abed, A & Sołowski, WT 2019, ‘Applications of a New THMC Coupled Code “Thebes”Environmental Geotechnics .

Abed, AA & Sołowski, WT 2017, ‘A study on how to couple thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils: Physical equations, numerical implementation and examplesComputers and Geotechnics, vol. 92, pp. 132-155.

Yang, X, Sołowski, WT, Fan, H & Dang, J 2018, Experimental Study on Effects of NaCl Solutions on Soil-Water Characteristic Curves of Expansive Soil. in Proceedings of China-Europe Conference on Geotechnical Engineering: Volume 2. vol. 2, Springer Series in Geomechanics and Geoengineering, pp. 1328-1331, China-Europe Conference on Geotechnical Engineering, Vienna, Austria, 13/08/2018.

Abed, A, Sołowski, WT, Romero, E & Gens, A 2018, Inclusion of chemical effect in a fully coupled THM finite element code. in C Ng, A Leung, A Chiu & C Zhou (eds), Unsaturated Soils. vol. 2, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology , Hong Kong, pp. 827-832, International Conference on Unsaturated Soils, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 03/08/2018.

Abed, AA & Solowski, WT 2018, Material Microstructure Effects in Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Modelling of Bentonite. in LR Hoyos, JS McCartney, SL Houston & WJ Likos (eds), PANAM UNSATURATED SOILS 2017: FUNDAMENTALS. Geotechnical Special Publication, no. 301, pp. 330-339, Pan-American Conference on Unsaturated Soils, Dallas, United States, 12/11/2017.

Kuusela-Lahtinen, A, Sinnathamby, G, Mendez, J, Sołowski, WT, Gallipoli, D, Pintado, X & Korkiala-Tanttu, LK 2016, Estimation of water retention behaviour of MX-80 bentonite partially saturated with saline solution. in 3rd European Conference on Unsaturated Soils – E-UNSAT 2016., 11006, E3S Web of Conferences , vol. 9, EDP Sciences, European Conference on Unsaturated Soils, Paris, France, 12/09/2016.

Abed, AA, Laitinen, M, Lämsä, J, Harjupatana, T, Sołowski, WT & Kataja, M 2016, Hydro-mechanical modelling of MX-80 bentonite: one dimensional study. in 3rd European Conference on Unsaturated Soils – E-UNSAT 2016., 18005, E3S Web of Conferences, vol. 9, EDP Sciences, European Conference on Unsaturated Soils, Paris, France, 12/09/2016.